BYU

Harold B. Lee Library

Introduction

Following a visit in February 1990 to Brigham Young University’s Primrose International Viola Archive located in the Harold B. Lee Library, Patricia McCarty, international viola soloist and recording artist, stated, “The Primrose Archive is of inestimable value to violists worldwide in our search to rediscover the best music written for our instrument.” Named in honor of William Primrose (1904-1982), the Scottish viola virtuoso who helped establish the viola as a concert instrument, the Primrose International Viola Archive (PIVA) originated in 1974 when Primrose accepted a proposal to donate his memorabilia to the Lee Library as the core of a new viola library that would eventually become a national “resource center for students, violists, and scholars.” Primrose and the viola archive that bears his name are commemorated in this issue of the Friends of the Brigham Young University Library Newsletter.

The new archive, originally called the Primrose Viola Library, brought together the Lee Library’s existing and modest collection of viola literature and the Primrose donation. After years of expansion through a systematic acquisitions program, BYU’s Primrose Viola Library received a substantial boost in 1981 when, after extended discussions, the International Viola Society (IVS) transferred its archive from the Mozarteum in Salzburg, Austria, to the Lee Library. At the time of transfer, the collection’s name was changed to the Primrose International Viola Society’s Archive to reflect the archive’s new character and scope.

The acquisition of the International Viola Society’s extensive archive spurred an increased effort to expand BYU’s holdings. In 1983, PIVA sent letters to hundreds of music publishers worldwide asking them to contribute viola music. In addition, the library placed standing orders with a number of international library suppliers to send viola scores upon publication. The library was also fortunate to acquire personal collections from violists, arrangers, and private collectors, including Ernst Wallfisch, the late eminent violist; Jan Albrecht of Czechoslovakia; Walter Lebermann and Rudolf Tretzsch, both of Germany; and the library of Franz Zeyringer, which constitutes the largest private collection donated to PIVA. Zeyringer was the founder and longtime president of the International Viola Society. In addition to these ongoing efforts to collect literature for and about the viola, PIVA plans to support projects in viola discography, to provide periodical updates to Franz Zeyringer’s Literatur für Viola, to compile a biographical dictionary of violists, and to produce a bibliography of research pertaining to the viola.

The William Primrose Library

BYU’s William Primrose Viola Library was largely the outgrowth of the close personal relationship of David Dalton and William Primrose. Dalton had been a student under Primrose while Dalton completed his doctorate at Indiana University. Dalton assisted Primrose in preparing his memoirs, Walk on the North Side, and during this collaboration Dalton suggested to the BYU library that this singular figure in the history of musical performance would leave a legacy worth preserving and honoring. In 1974, a meeting was held with Primrose, Dalton, and officials of the Harold B. Lee Library at BYU in which a proposal was made to “establish a viola music collection, called the William Primrose Viola Library, which would become a resource center for students, professional and amateur violists, and scholars.” At the core of the library would be Primrose’s own collection, consisting of his library of annotated scores including many manuscripts, vintage recordings, photographs, press clippings, correspondence, and personal papers relating to his career and publications. Surrounding this unique material would be a library of all currently available music published for the viola, all available recordings of viola music by Primrose and other violists, books, treatises, articles, etc., pertaining to the history, literature, and viola pedagogy.

Due to Primrose’s residence in Australia for most of the intervening years, the agreement was not completed until 1979. In 1978, filming of a 30-minute documentary entitled A Violist’s Legacy featuring Primrose took place at the Brigham Young University television studios. The film premiered at the Seventh International Viola Congress hosted by Brigham Young University in July, 1979, and is now distributed by Shar Products Company, a company that has promoted the preservation on film of some of the great string artists of the twentieth century.

As a result of the congress, BYU produced another video featuring Primrose, entitled 200 Violists. In 1987, a second documentary, William Primrose, Violist, was produced at BYU. This video contains a vintage black-and-white film of Primrose in recital at the height of his career in 1947 (also distributed by Shar Co.). In the summer of 1980, Primrose recorded the Bach Cello/Viola Suites at Brigham Young University sound studios; these have yet to be released. These visual and aural documents repose in PIVA. Licensing by RCA and other companies has been granted for the reissue of vintage Primrose recordings.

From the inception of the Primrose Library the focal effort has been to gather, and where necessary purchase, Primrose memorabilia and to acquire viola music in print, along with holograph scores, or photostats of manuscripts when originals are not available. In 1977, Primrose donated to BYU approximately 200 pieces of viola music from his own collection. Although Primrose described himself as a “noncollector,” a sizable number of interesting items turned up in this trove, including some that are unique. There is, for instance, a manuscript for solo viola by Ernst Toch dated 18 August 1968—not long before his death—which bears the inscription:

For William Primrose
The master of his art,
To please his somewhat
capricious heart.

There is a holograph score of the “Sarasateana: Suite of Spanish Dances” for viola in the hand of Efrem Zimbalist, the late distinguished violinist and Primrose’s director at the Curtis Institute of Music in the early 1940s. Two illuminating manuscripts are the “working” scores of the Milhaud Second Viola Concerto in the composer’s hand, dedicated to Primrose, and that in Tibor Serly’s hand, of the Bartók Viola Concerto, from which Primrose prepared the premiere performance in 1949.

Primrose manuscripts include his pedagogical writings and arrangements, such as The Art and Practice of Scale Playing on the Viola (1954) and La Campanella (1956) by Paganini-Liszt. There are also proof sheets of his editings of other composers’ works, for instance the Bach Cello/Viola Suites and Fantastic Variations on a Theme from Tristan by William Bergsma, written for Primrose (1963). PIVA has numerous holographs of various composers’ works for viola, including Iain Hamilton’s “Sonata for Viola and Piano,” George Rochberg’s “Viola Sonata,” and Maurice Gardner’s Rhapsody for Viola and Orchestra, works commissioned by Brigham Young University, Friends of Primrose, and the American Viola Society. An attempt was made to acquire the originals of two dedications to Primrose, specifically Bartók’s holograph of the Viola Concerto and Britten’s Lachrymae, but only photostats were available.

While most of Primrose’s private collection consist of viola solo music, about fifteen chamber works containing viola parts with fingerings and bowings used by Primrose in performances and recordings are also included. It would be instructive for a curious violist to examine the viola part in an album of Mozart quartets used by Primrose in the London String Quartet, or the “Trout” Quintet used in the Festival Quartet, or a volume of Beethoven string trios presumably employed in the Heifetz Primrose-Piatigorsky Trio.

In 1979 Primrose’s sister Jean, of New York City, donated a trove of early Primrose memorabilia to PIVA. During the London Blitz of World War II, the Primrose family apartment fell victim to a V-2 bomb. Family possessions that were rescued were eventually stored at Canterbury and in 1977 were brought in a suitcase to BYU. A number of vintage family photos from Glasgow and London augmented the Primrose photo archive considerably, and a large press-clipping book with the musty spell of English dampness is a particularly interesting item in the archive. The suitcase, which Primrose recognized as an old companion from his concert traveling days, yielded programs, reviews, and some phonodiscs, both 78s and LPs. Among the discs were several examples of first pressings, or “test” records, with an approving “ok WP” scrawled on the label. Of particular interest are two recordings from air checks over NBC, done in 1942 by the Primrose Quartet (Oscar Shumsky, Josef Gingold, Primrose and Harvey Shapiro).

Efforts are being made increase the Primrose Endowment, to expand the holdings of PIVA, and to bring focus on the viola as a concert instrument.

From Primrose Viola Library to Primrose International Viola

Franz Zeyringer, president of the International Viola Society (IVS) attended the Seventh International Viola Congress held at Brigham Young University in July, 1979. Impressed with the William Primrose Viola Library, he recognized in BYU a solution to the problems he was having with the viola archive of the International Viola Society then housed in the Mozarteum in Salzburg, Austria.

Following his return to Austria and after consultation with the other officers of IVS, Professor Zeyringer commenced negotiations with officials of the Hochschulbibliothek Mozarteum in Salzburg to move the IVS Archive to the Brigham Young University Library. Zeyringer had been the significant force behind the establishment of the International Viola Society’s Archive at the Hochschulbibliothek and had devoted considerable personal time and funds to the archive. All parties concerned agreed to the proposition of moving the IVS Archive, and Zeyringer informed the Lee Library that further negotiations should be made directly with Dr. Werner Rainer, director of the library at the Mozarteum. Correspondence ensued primarily between David Dalton, professor of viola at BYU, and Rainer. An agreement, signed on April 21, 1981, by A. Dean Larsen representing the Brigham Young University Library and Dr. Werner Rainer for the Bibliothek Mozarteum, released the IVS Archive in exchange for a set of the Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae. The International Viola Society’s Archive arrived at the BYU Library in June, 1981.

With the acquisition of the archive of the International Viola Society, the Brigham Young University Library’s collection of viola scores doubled to more than 2,000 scores. It was decided, in lieu of the notable expansion of the William Primrose Viola Library with the addition of the International Viola Society’s Archive and its new international character, to rename the William Primrose Library the Primrose International Viola Archive. PIVA has subsequently become the official archive of the International Viola Society and the American Viola Society.

Expansion of the Primrose International Viola Archive

The goal adopted in the expansion of PIVA was to acquire as many of the titles listed in the Zeyringer bibliography Literatur für Viola as possible. An important aspect of this program was to interest those with major private collections to consider PIVA as a repository. In the ensuing years, several such collections became a part of PIVA.

Zeyringer Collection

“In a very quiet and peaceful area of Austria near the musically renowned city of Graz, a certain man has set about to collect and organize the viola literature of the entire world.” So wrote Klaus Zeyringer of his father. Franz Zeyringer (1920- ) of Pöllau, Austria, was the driving force in the establishment of PIVA and its early development. The Zeyringer collection, assembled over a period of thirty years, was the first private collection added to PIVA. Professor Zeyringer was a viola soloist, teacher, and author of books and many articles on the viola. He was founder, and president of the Internationale Viola Gesellschaft from 1968-88, at which time he was elected honorary president and presented with a gold emblem in the shape of a viola clef and the portrait that now hangs in the Musik Hochschule at Pöllau, of which he was director.

The first recollection that David Dalton has of the then obscure professor in a small town tucked away in the Styrian district of southeastern Austria was during a private lesson with William Primrose in 1965 at the latter’s Sunset Boulevard home in Los Angeles. Primrose showed Dalton a booklet by Zeyringer entitled Literatur für Viola (Hartberg, Austria, Verlag Julius Schönwetter, 1965). Though modest in comparison to what this work would later became, at the time it probably was the most comprehensive record of published music for the viola. Two expanded editions appeared in 1976 and 1985. The last edition contains over 14,000 entries of compositions for the viola.

Another large work by Zeyringer dealing with the viola is Die Viola da braccio (Munich, Verlag Heller, 1988). This book addresses a wide swath of subjects relating to the viola, from the derivation of the word viola, the question of its size, the history of viola performance, to favorite endeavors with which Zeyringer has been inextricably connected, for example, the International Viola Society and PIVA. To the latter he devotes twenty pages, including photos of the BYU campus. He writes of PIVA and BYU as becoming the repository of his and other important collections of viola music and establishing itself as the viola center in the world.

Professor Zeyringer began to make regular donations of viola scores to the Primrose International Viola Archive as soon as it was established in 1982. The largest of the Zeyringer donations was in 1989, when Professor Zeyringer sent the corpus of his viola scores as well as wide-ranging correspondence with leading violists and other musicians. He included resource materials used in preparing various publications. An extensive collection of publications generated primarily by the International Viola Society and its several national chapters is represented. Professor Zeyringer continues to make contributions of materials relating to the viola and printed music for viola.

In 1984 a letter from David Dalton and Franz Zeyringer was sent to publishers worldwide requesting deposit of their publications of viola music in PIVA. This initiative was undertaken to make PIVA the central and largest repository in the world of materials relating to the viola. Response from these publishing houses was profuse with even small firms and rather obscure publishers sending copies of their entire viola output. Almost 500 solicitation letters were sent, and more than twice that number of viola scores were received. This solicitation was also undertaken in anticipation of the publication in 1985 of a new edition of Zeyringer’s Literatur für Viola. This bibliography identifies most of the holdings within PIVA, thus making it easier for libraries and patrons generally to know if a desired composition is available in PIVA.

Ernst Wallfisch Collection

Ernst Wallfisch (1920-1979), a prominent international viola soloist and recording artist, was born in Frankfurt/Main, Germany and at a young age immigrated to România. It was there that he met and married his wife Lory, an accomplished pianist. After the war, they were aided by Yehudi Menuhin in their efforts to leave România and eventually came to the United States. For some years, and at the time of Ernst’s death, both Ernst and Lory Wallfisch were on the music faculty of Smith College at Northampton, Massachusetts. Although Ernst appeared frequently as soloist with a number of orchestras, it was in partnership with Lory as the Wallfisch Duo that they were best known.

David Dalton first met the Wallfischs in 1975 at the First International Viola Congress held at Eastern Michigan University in Ypsilanti. Correspondence began between Dalton and Ernst Wallfisch concerning viola subjects of common interest. In 1984, five years after Ernst’s death, David Dalton met Lory Wallfisch at the Tertis International Viola Competition on the Isle of Man, United Kingdom. A casual conversation led Dalton to inquire about the plans she had made for the disposition of Ernst’s personal viola library. She had reflected on the matter, she said, but was undecided. When Lory was told about the Primrose International Viola Archive, she became interested in this possibility.

At Mrs. Wallfisch’s invitation, Professor Dalton visited the Wallfisch home in Northampton to make a preliminary assessment of the Wallfisch viola library. The Wallfisch library included the standard published editions comprising the heart of the viola repertoire, but there were also more obscure works. Being an artist of his stature, Ernst Wallfisch had received presentation copies of published scores and manuscripts.

Lory Wallfisch visited Brigham Young University in 1986 to make her own assessment of the University Library and PIVA in particular. She was satisfied that PIVA was the appropriate place to deposit her husband’s collection of viola music. About 300 items were subsequently added to PIVA.

Walter Lebermann Collection

Walter Lebermann (1910-1984), of Bad Homburg (near Frankfurt), Germany, was a professional violist who was forced to retire early because of the residual and debilitating effects of an injury suffered in World War II. Lebermann then turned his attention to researching hitherto unpublished music manuscripts stemming mainly from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His research led him to libraries, the dusty corners of churches, and private archival collections in homes and castles. Lebermann was an effective sleuth. Naturally, he kept his eyes opened for music written for his favorite instrument, and he enriched the viola literature through his discoveries. His editings were then brought out in modern editions by leading European music publishers, such as Schott.

In 1982, David Dalton visited Walter Lebermann in his Bad Homburg home. Both Mr. Lebermann and his wife were most cordial, and Dalton was invited to peruse the collection of manuscripts, printed music, microfilms, publications, and correspondence, housed in his work studio.

In 1984, word was received that Lebermann had suddenly passed away. Dalton tried to correspond with Erla Lebermann, the widow, for most of a year without success regarding the possible gift to, or acquisition of, the Lebermann collection by PIVA. When an answer was finally received, Frau Lebermann explained that the trauma of her husband’s unexpected death had made it necessary for her to travel elsewhere to stay with other family members. Mrs. Lebermann was, however, willing to negotiate with PIVA.

Part of the collection had gone by prior arrangement to the violist, musicologist, and noted collector, Ulrich DrĂ¼ner. Negotiations in behalf of PIVA were successful, and the remaining part of the Lebermann collection was shipped to the Lee Library in 1986. Included were printed scores, microfilms containing classical viola concertos and classical concertos for various instruments, symphonies, and chamber music, with particular focus on music by the Stamitz family and Karl von Dittersdorf. Also included were photocopies of manuscripts and some printed books as well as modern published editions of music by Lebermann containing literature for viola and chamber music, concertos, and symphonies involving various instruments.

Lebermann memorabilia and all viola literature were incorporated in PIVA. The remainder was processed and catalogued in the appropriate area of the general music collections in the Harold B. Lee Library.

Jan Albrecht Collection

Jan Albrecht (1919- ) was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia), a son of the composer Alexander Albrecht. Jan commenced study of the violin at age six under Georg Actdardieff, who had been a student of Henri Marteau. Albrecht graduated from the local conservatory in viola performance and from the Musikhochschule in 1950. Professor Albrecht was principal violist in several orchestras and a teacher at the Höhere Musikschule, Komensky University. In Trnava he was founder of the Chamber Orchestra Collegium Musicum, and in Bratislava he founded an ensemble for older music “Musica Aterna.”

Professor Albrecht was a close friend of Zeyringer, who suggested to Albrecht that his collection be added to PIVA. With a protective, totalitarian regime still in power, it was not an easy matter to get the collection out of what was then Czechoslovakia. Again, Zeyringer played a major role in having the collection transported piecemeal to Austria before shipment to the Lee Library.

The Albrecht library added about 400 printed viola scores to PIVA. Especially valuable are many early editions of this century and particularly viola literature printed by eastern European publishers, which were not easily obtainable in the West. There were also many scores by Russian publishers that helped immeasurably to fill a gap in the international representation of printed music for viola.

Tretzsch Collection

Another large viola collection had been assembled by Rudolf Tretzsch of Berlin. Because of Zeyringer’s intercession and persuasion with Frau Liselotte Tretzsch, the Lee Library was able to negociate its purchase.

Professor Rudolf Tretzsch (1905-1981) was born in Chemnitz, Germany. Tretzsch studied natural sciences at the universities of Leipzig and Vienna and music under Professor Waetzold at the Conservatory of Leipzig and under Professor Hugo von Steiner at the University of Vienna. His studies centered on violin, piano, and music theory.

In 1928, Tretzsch passed the state examination for teacher’s credentials for institutions of higher learning. The title of his dissertation was Darstellung und Kritik der bisherigen Vorschläge zur Musikalitätsprufung [Representation and Critique of Existing Proposals for Musicality].

Tretzsch’s teaching career began in 1930 at the Oberrealschule Auerbach in the Vogtland, where he taught music theory, orchestration, and instrumentation. After service in World War II, Professor Tretzsch was solo violinist at the municipal theater at Würzen (German Democratic Republic, 1946); solo violinist for chamber music with the Symphony Orchestra of Leipzig and coordinator for musical radio programs (1947-1952); director of the Orchestra at the Music Conservatory of East Berlin, as well as the Radio Symphony Orchestra of that city (1952-1954). In 1955 he resettled in West Berlin, where he taught at the Kant Gymnasium at Berlin-Spandau until his retirement in 1967. From 1968 until his death, Professor Tretzsch actively pursued private research in musicology while maintaining active professional ties with the Berlin Philharmonic (under Herbert von Karajan). From 1930 he was an active coeditor of the Catalogues for Chamber Music (Kammermusik-Kataloge), edited by Professor Wilhelm Altmann (1862-1951), then director of the Department of Music of the Preussische Staatsbibliothek at Berlin.

Professor Tretzsch was both an avid collector and a bookdealer after moving to West Berlin. He issued catalogs of items for sale, and at the time of his death, his apartment contained several thousand musical scores and music monographs. In 1986, the Berlin Philharmonic acquired his chamber music collection to be housed in the new Chamber Music Hall adjoining the Philharmonie Hall. In 1986, A. Dean Larsen, BYU Associate University Librarian, visited Liselotte Tretzsch, Tretzsch’s widow, in her Berlin apartment and negotiated the purchase of approximately 600 viola scores. A Swiss bookdealer acquired the balance of the Tretzsch collection, consisting of approximately 3,000 scores and 1,000 monographs. These units were acquired by the Lee Library in 1987 and 1992.

de Beaumont Viola Phonodisc Collection

François de Beaumont (1932-1982), a young medical student in the 1950s studying to be a surgeon in Geneva, heard a performance by William Primrose of the Bartók Viola Concerto with l’Orchestre de la Suisse Romande under the direction of Ernest Ansermet. So impressed and moved was de Beaumont by this performance that he resolved to devote part of his life to some aspect of promoting the viola. This endeavor culminated in the first printing of the Discographie sur l’alto in 1973, published by Bärenreiter and later issued in expanded editions in 1975, 1977, and 1980.

Upon meeting David Dalton, de Beaumont of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, invited him to examine his collection of viola recordings and ongoing work with the discography, and simply to “talk viola.” Dalton notified de Beaumont that he would be in Switzerland in June, 1982. De Beaumont answered that he welcomed the visit at that time although he would be recovering from, as he put it, a minor operation. Professor Dalton, calling de Beaumont’s office from a neighboring city to announce his arrival in Neuchâtel on the following day, was answered by the receptionist: “Monsieur, je suis désolé. Doctor de Beaumont, il est mort!” Dr. Beaumont, a wonderful spirit and valued friend of the viola, had not survived the operation and was dead at forty nine.

Zeyringer, who was well acquainted with de Beaumont and his wife, Arlette, recommended to her that she consider depositing her late husband’s phonodisc collection in PIVA. In the summer of 1986, David Day, BYU music librarian, visited Mme de Beaumont in Switzerland, and she agreed to consider PIVA as a repository for the de Beaumont collection. Later that year A. Dean Larsen, visited Mme de Beaumont and negotiated the purchase of the de Beaumont phonodisc collection, numbering about 150 items and maintained separately as part of PIVA.

Primrose International Viola Archive Services Today

Since its founding in 1974, PIVA has grown to become the world’s largest repository of music and research documents for the viola. PIVA’s current holdings consist of more than 4,500 published scores, approximately 250 sound recordings, hundreds of original manuscripts, photocopies of manuscripts, and a mounting depository of correspondence, research papers, photographs, and other memorabilia from the private collections of many renowned violists. Located in a beautiful mountain setting at the Harold B. Lee Library of Brigham Young University, it will continue to preserve the past and future heritage of the viola and its performing artists.

While the role of PIVA as a secure institution of preservation is important, its goal is to make the unique resources of this great collection conveniently accessible to interested performers and scholars around the world. The present organization and daily activities of PIVA revolve around two underlying commitments and responsibilities: preservation and service to the user. These tasks are evident in the physical arrangement of materials, custom bindings for scores, computerized cataloging, reference services at the library, correspondence and response to numerous requests for copies within the fair-use guidelines of copyright laws, special arrangements of loan materials, and ongoing commitments to new acquisitions.

At present, limitations of space and personnel within the library necessitate organization of PIVA materials into two areas. Regularly published modern editions are bound in a distinctive red cover and interfiled with the general music collection in open stacks. Rare and unique documents, including original manuscripts, early published editions, photographs, vintage recordings, annotated performance materials, and personal papers of renowned violists, are kept and serviced with other notable special collections in music. University students and visitors to the library can browse the open stacks and examine the published scores freely during regular library hours. Access to rare materials and manuscripts is possible by appointment and prior arrangement.

The unusual care and attention devoted to binding the scores at PIVA is a model for music libraries everywhere. Every effort is made to protect each original score in an attractive and durable cover handmade from fine quality materials. PIVA bindings are also designed to ensure the convenient use of the score and any accompanying parts for performance. When torn or otherwise damaged scores are received as private donations, time and energy are expended to restore the scores to a useful life by strengthening broken spines and mending tears with Japanese paper. Digital processing of images in the microcomputer environment is also utilized as a means of reconstructing documents damaged beyond repair.

Computer cataloging for scores acquired by PIVA is a key step in making its resources known and available throughout the world. Scores are catalogued according to internationally established library standards and entered into several large databases. Students and faculty at the university can conveniently search the holdings of PIVA from numerous terminals located throughout the library and at other university campuses. Computerized cataloging information created for PIVA at BYU is also entered into two large national databases—OCLC and RLIN. These two databases represent a network consortium of thousands of academic and public libraries located primarily in the United States and Canada with access to Great Britain and expanding to Continental European libraries. Experienced reference librarians at participating institutions can assist violists in determining whether a particular score is available at PIVA. The wave of new developments in computer networking around the world also presents fascinating possibilities for accessing the information stored in the library’s computer at BYU. Today it is feasible for any violist capable of using Internet to log into PIVA’s catalog from their own home computer. Manuscripts, papers, and other memorabilia are catalogued and indexed in a microcomputer database designed specifically for PIVA. This database, currently accessible only at PIVA, may be made available through computer networks in the future.

The advances of modern technology, however, are not available to all violists, especially those in developing countries. PIVA remains committed to reaching out to all violists regardless of location and circumstances. Updates of new acquisitions are published in Die Viola, the journal of the International Viola Society, and also appear in the Journal of the American Viola Society published at Brigham Young University with David Dalton, editor, and David Day, assistant editor. Most important, all violists may write directly to PIVA’s curator, David Day, to request loans, photocopies, or any research information desired. Requests for loans are welcome from violists around the world affiliated in some way with an academic or public library. Special consideration will also be given to violists associated with a professional orchestra.

Photocopies are provided at a nominal cost, provided the request meets international copyright regulations. However, scores in print and available for sale must be purchased directly from the publisher. Materials out-of-print but still protected by copyright can be copied only if the requester obtains the written consent of the valid copyright holder. Works in the public domain (in most cases, published before 1917) may be copied unless protected by special restrictions.

The curator welcomes letters from violists requesting information or help in research. Although information requested may not always be available, an honest effort will be made to share the resources of PIVA as freely as possible with the entire international family of violists.

Perhaps the most exciting activity at PIVA is the ongoing quest to identify and acquire every newly published edition of music for the viola. This collecting scope includes not only works for solo viola but also small chamber works in which the viola plays a significant part. To assist with this daunting task, PIVA has established contracts with three major music distributors: Otto Harrassowitz for European publications, European American Retail Music for publications in the Americas, and Academia Music in Tokyo for Asia and the Pacific. The contract with Otto Harrassowitz has proved to be especially fortuitous because Peter Gnoss, the employee at Wiesbaden assigned to personally handle the PIVA account, is himself a fine violist.

In addition to scores received from contracted vendors, David Dalton and David Day regularly scan magazines and music publishers’ advertisements in search of obscure and unusual pieces issued by small presses. Close working relationships have also been established with many antiquarian music dealers in the U.S. and Europe. For example, in 1989 when John Lubrano of J. & J. Lubrano discovered three original manuscripts for the viola by the composers Paul Rougnon, Henri Casadesus, and Robert-Lucien Siohan, PIVA was given exclusive advance notice of their sale and the first opportunity to purchase. Recently, PIVA has also focused more attention on the acquisition of sound recordings, visual recordings, rare editions, and noncommercial resources such as tapes of viola congresses and master classes, manuscripts of newly composed works, programs of major recitals, and photographs of important violists. A few music publishers and distributors, notably Theodore Presser among others, continue to send complimentary copies of newly published scores for review in the Journal of the American Viola Society.

A major acquisition project scheduled for the summer of 1993 will be the microfilming of the private collection of manuscript scores and rare editions of music for the viola owned by a prominent European violist and collector. The functional use of this priceless collection of more than 2,000 items in microfilm will elevate PIVA as a center of viola research to a new plateau of comprehensive excellence.

Ongoing Research and Future Visions for PIVA

To realize its full potential as an international center of documentation and research, PIVA must extend its vision beyond the fundamental tasks of acquiring and organizing to the role of an active proponent for research and original publications. This idea was clearly envisioned by those instrumental in PIVA’s creation. Franz Zeyringer, in particular, carefully designed a structure and agenda to enable PIVA to become a catalyst and focal point of continued viola scholarship.

Periodic updating of Zeyringer’s essential reference guide, Literatur für Viola (1985) is the first priority. All acquisitions by PIVA since 1985 of viola scores will appear on the PIVA website, listed categorically according to the Zeyringer format.

Another major undertaking will be a companion volume to the Literatur für Viola, a viola discography. Work for this publication is in progress; to date, approximately 1,500 recordings have been identified. The pioneering work of the late Dr. François de Beaumont will serve as a foundation to the content of the discography that is projected for release in 1995. The viola discography will be a comprehensive listing of commercially released discs and will also feature references to many noncommercially produced recordings, such as performances at congresses of the International Viola Society and the William Primrose Memorial Concerts given at Brigham Young University. Organization of the discography will provide easy access by composer and work with convenient indexes for soloists, assisting artists, record label and number, and a subject classification corresponding to the organization of Zeyringer’s Literatur für Viola. Violists who possess large collections of viola recordings or who may be willing to donate personal recordings (commercial and/or noncommercial) for preservation at PIVA and documentation in the discography project should to contact David Day.

Two other important publication projects envisioned by the founders of PIVA include an annotated bibliography of viola research and a historical biographical dictionary of violists. Both publications are in early stages of development. During his active career devoted to research of the viola, Franz Zeyringer amassed an amazing library of information and resources. Most of his findings are documented in his Die Viola da braccio (1988) and a bibliography published in the 1985/86 issue of Die Viola.

Zeyringer’s research papers now reside at PIVA. The task of compiling and annotating an exhaustive bibliographic guide to research about the viola is in process with a review and analysis of Zeyringer’s lifetime accumulation. Graduate students studying viola at BYU are enlisted in the process of identifying research related to the viola. A bibliography of viola research compiled by Sharon Dunning expands upon Zeyringer’s bibliography published in Die Viola. Claudine Bigelow undertook a bibliography project devoted to pedagogical writings for the viola. At some point in the future these component projects will be combined, verified, and critiqued for inclusion in a definitive guide to existing viola research.

The biographical dictionary of violists is in a formulative stage. Acknowledgment must, of course, be given to the extensive research about the most famous violists already provided in Maurice Riley’s two-volume The History of the Viola (1980). The dictionary envisioned for PIVA, however, will be organized quite differently. This guide will deal specifically with biographical information of all significant violists. Announcements published in Zeyringer’s Die Viola da braccio and other International Viola Society and American Viola Society publications have already resulted in contributions of numerous brief biographies from concert violists around the world. Although a publication date for the biographical dictionary is not yet projected, all violists are encouraged to submit a biography for consideration. As work on the revised edition of Literatur für Viola and the viola discography near completion, efforts devoted to the bibliography and the biographical dictionary will increase.

These four fundamental commitments of PIVA—revised editions of Literatur für Viola, a viola discography, a bibliography of viola research, and a biographical dictionary of violists—are time-consuming endeavors that will require years of sustained devotion. Violists and music historians interested in participating in these causes are gladly welcome. In its most lofty aspirations, PIVA will endeavor to promote even additional causes related to the viola. The archive’s vast holdings of unpublished manuscripts and neglected early editions beg the skill of modern editors to enrich the repertoire of the viola with new publications of original works not yet known and masterpieces from the past longing to be performed anew. PIVA’s increased focus on acquiring early recording of virtuosos will lead to opportunities to reissue a great legacy of historical performances on compact discs.

As the viola receives increased emphasis within the academic community, PIVA will offer aspiring graduate students aid in defining theses and dissertation topics. Advanced scholars may draw upon a wealth of primary research materials for publication in journals and presentations at future viola congresses.

A crowning realization of PIVA is the consolidation of its diverse resources into a distinct and unified facility. On March 1, 2002 the handsome newly constructed Primrose and PIVA Rooms were ceremoniously opened on the 4th Floor of the Harold B. Lee Library. These and other facilities will service the varied dimensions of PIVA.

The Primrose Room features standing displays of Primrose memorabilia commemorating the distinguished career of William Primrose, major donors to PIVA, and the legacy of the instrument itself. As conceived, the two rooms enable use of different media formats in one convenient and inviting environment. Its doors welcome students, performers, and scholars from around the world. PIVA is truly becoming the mecca of all viola enthusiasts.