Public Domain

When copyright protection expires the work enters the public domain meaning anyone can freely use it without seeking permission or paying a fee. Since U.S. and international copyright laws defining the time period of copyright protection have been revised several times it often is difficult to accurately determine when a specific item has entered the public domain. The following resources will assist in determining the copyright status of a work:

Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States is a helpful chart in determining if a work is in the public domain. Created by Peter Hirtle, Cornell University Libraries.

List of Countries’ Copyright Lengths, Wikipedia. List of countries and their copyright terms-the lengths in years. When a work’s copyright term ends–when the work passes into the public domain.

Copyright Renewal Database (Books only): a searchable database of the copyright renewal records received by the U.S. Copyright Office from 1950 to 1992 and for books published in the U.S. from 1923 to 1963.

How to Investigate the Copyright Status of a Work, U.S. Copyright Office Circular 22

Copyright Research, Stanford Universities Libraries

Researching the Copyright Status of a Book: Protected or Public Domain? Kenneth D. Crews, Columbia University

Copyright Catalog (1978 to present), U.S. Copyright Office Public Catalog