Indes Iconologicus
The Illustrated Bartsch
Hollstein | The New Hollstein
Marburger Index



Murray. Sources in Iconography: An Annotated Bibliography. 1997. HumRef N7560.B58 1997

Straten. An Introduction to Iconography: Symbols, Allusions, and Meaning in the Visual Arts. 1994. HumRef N 7565 .S7713 1994


General Iconography

Chevalier and Gheerbrant. A Dictionary of Symbols. 1994. HumRef GR 931 .C4413 1994

Jobes. Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore, and Symbols. 1961. 3 vols. HumRef GR 35 .J6

Laing and Wire. The Encyclopedia of Signs and Symbols. 1993. HumRef N 7740 .L3x 1993

Liungman. Dictionary of Symbols. 1991. HumRef BL 603 .L5413 1991

Moon. An Encyclopedia of Archetypal Symbolism. 1991. HumRef BL 603 .A72 1991

Pigler. Barockthemen: eine auswahl von verzeichnissen zur Ikonographie des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. 1956. 2 vols.
Illustrated list of works of art depicting Baroque themes used during the 17th and 18th centuries. Vol. 1: religious subjects; vol. 2: profane. Under each theme, there is a brief list of references describing the scene plus a list of artists who depicted it. HumRef N 6410 .P5

Robert. Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 1998. 2 vols.
Themes contain critical essay, works of art depicting specific themes, and bibliography. HumRef N7560.E53 1998

De Vries. Dictionary of Symbols and Imagery. 1976. HumRef BL 600 .V74 1976


Symbols in Art

Bemen and Bemen. Myth and Religion in European Painting 1270-1700: The Stories as the Artists Knew Them. 1973. HumRef ND1288 .B47 1973b

Carr-Gomm. Dictionary of Symbols in Western Art. 1995. HumRef N 7740 .C29 1995

------.  Hidden symbols in Art. 2001. HumRef N 7740 .C34 2001

Friedlander. Early Netherlandish Painting. 1967-1976. 14 vols. ND 631 .F713

Daniel. Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting. 1971. HumRef ND 1288 .D3 1971b

Frenzel. Stoffe der Weltliteratur: ein Lexikon dichtungsgeschichtlicher Langsschnitte .1983.
Great source for locating literary figures in art, with references to the works in which they appear. Covers modern literature as well as the Bible, classical mythology, and history. PN 56.4 .F745x 1983

Hall. A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art. 1983. N 6911.H18x 1983

------. Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. 1979. HumRef N 7560 .H34 1979b

Katzenellenbogen. Allegories of the Virtues and Vices in Medieval Art: From Early Christian Times to the Thirteenth Century. 1964. N 7740 .K313

Knipping. Iconography of the Counter Reformation in the Netherlands: Heaven on Earth. 1974. 2 vols. Quarto N 6946 .K513

Mâle. The Gothic Image: Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century. 1972. N 7949 .M29213x 1972

------. Religious Art in France: From the Twelfth to the Eighteenth Centuries. 1982 N 7949 .M34x
Mâle, one of the great iconographical authorities, wrote four books on French medieval iconography: (1) L'art religieux du XII siècle en France, (2) L'art religieux du XIII siècle en France, (3) L'art religieux de la fin du moyen âge en France, (4) L'art religieux de la fin du XVI siècle, du XVII siècle et du XVIII siècle: Etude sur l'iconographie après le concile de Trente. This book is a collection of translated sections from all four works.

------. Religious Art in France: The Twelfth Century-- a Study of the Origins of Medieval Iconography. 1978. N7949 .A1 M3413

------. Religious Art in France: The Late Middle Ages-- A Study of Medieval Iconography and Its Sources. 1986. N 7949 .A1 M3313

Marle. Iconographie de l'art profane au Moyen-Âge et à la Renaissance, et la décoration des demeures. 1931-32. 2 vols. Quarto N 5970 .M352

McLerran. Old Age in Myth and Symbol: A Cultural Dictionary. 1991. HumRef PN56 .O4 M34 1991

Norman. Metamorphoses of an Allegory: The Iconography of the Psychomachia in Medieval Art. 1988. N 7725.G66 N67 1987

Panofsky. Meaning in the Visual Arts. 1982. N 7445.2 .P35 1982

------. Studies in Iconology: Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance. 1972. HumRef N 6370 .P3x 1972b

Paulson. Emblem and Expression: Meaning in English Art of the Eighteenth Century. 1975. N 6766 .P38

Preston. A Dictionary of Pictorial Subjects from Classical Literature: A Guide to Their Identification in Works of Art. 1983. HumRef N 7760 .P68 1983

Wind. Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance. 1967. N 6915 .W53 1967

Whittlesey. Symbols and Legends in Western Art: A Museum Guide. 1972. HumRef N 7740 .W53 1972


Religious Topics

Christian Iconography

Apostolos-Cappadona. Dictionary of Christian Art. 1994. HumRef BV 150 .A66 1994

Didron. Christian Iconography: The History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages. 1851-86. 1965. 2 vols. N 7832 .D4913 1968

Evans. Monastic Iconography in France from the Renaissance to the Revolution. 1970. N 7949 .E9

Ferguson. Signs and Symbols in Christian Art. 1955. HumRef N 7830 .F37 1955

Grabar. Christian Iconography: A Study of Its Origins. 1969. N 7832 .G6613 1969

Hulme. Symbolism in Christian Art. 1976. N 8010 .H84 1976

Ohlgren . Illuminated Manuscripts and Books in the Bodleian Library: a Supplemental Index. 1978. 2 vols.
Subject index to all slides produced by the Bodleian Library of over 1,800 books and illuminated manuscripts in the Oxford University collection. Manuscripts are indexed by title, provenance, date, language, artist, and subject of each illumination. HumRef ND 2920 .O9 1978 Suppl.

Kelly. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. 1986. HumRef BX 955.2 .K45 1986

Kirschbaum and Braufels. Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. 1968-76. 8 vols. Volumes I-IV: Gemeine Ikonographie
Volumes V-VIII: Ikonographie der Heiligen. BV 150 .L4
One of the most scholarly iconographical references available. The first four volumes cover general terms and Biblical characters. The lives of the saints start with the fifth volume. Written in dictionary format, entries are signed, have numerous illustrations and include bibliographical references. At the beginning of the first and fifth volumes there are four lists which explain the abbreviations used: for terms, for museums, for cities, and for bibliographical references.

Murray and Murray. The Oxford Companion to Christian Art and Architecture. 1996. HumRef N 7830 ,M87 1996

Nichols. Romanesque Signs: Early Medieval Narrative and Iconography. NX 449 .N5

Nordstrom. Mediaeval Baptismal Fonts: An Iconographical Study. 1984. NB 1280 .N67 1984

Raw. Anglo-Saxon Crucifixion Iconography and the Art of the Monastic Revival. 1990. N 6763 .R38 1990

Réau. Iconographie de l'art chrétien. 1955-59. 3 vols. in 6 books. HumRef N 7830 .R37
Vol. 1 is a general introduction, with articles on the sources and evolution of Christian iconography; on animal, human, and liturgical symbolisms; and on the iconography of the saints. Vol. II contains the iconography of the Bible. Vol. III (3 books) contains the iconography of the saints. The last book has several indices: to the names of the saints in various languages including Russian, Swedish, Hungarian, and Dutch; to the patronage of the various saints; and to the attributes of the saints. A general bibliography is published in the first volume. The entries in the third volume describe scenes in which the saints are depicted in art, including the English title for the scene and bibliographical data and an extensive list of works of art that illustrate the saint or symbol discussed. These lists, which are divided by century, include the locations of the works of art.

Roberts and Hall. Iconographic Index to New Testament Subjects Represented in Photographs and Slides of Paintings in the Visual Collections, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University. HumRef ND 430 .R6 1992

------. Iconographic Index to Old Testament Subjects Represented in Photographs and Slides of Paintings in the Visual Collections, Fine Arts Library, arvard University. 1987. HumRef ND 1430 .R63 1987

Schiller. Iconography of Christian Art. 1971. 2 vols.
Volume I covers the life of Christ (from the Incarnation through the miracles) and vol. II covers the Passion of Christ. Profusely illustrated with black-and-white reproductions. Each book contains a selected bibliography; second volume has a general index for both works. These are two of the volumes of Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst. Five vols. have been issued in German, covering the Resurrection, Ascension, and The Church. HumRef N 7830 .S3513 (English)
Ikonographie der christlichen kunst. 1966. 5 vols . N 7830 .S35 (German)

Sill. A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art. 1975. HumRef N 8010 .S54 1975b

Speake. The Dent Dictionary of Symbols in Christian Art. 1994. HumRef N 7825 .S64x 1994

Webber. Church Symbolism: An Explanation of the More Important Symbols of the Old and New Testament, the Primitive, the Mediaeval, and the Modern Church. 1971. BV 150 .W4 1938a
Includes a list of the more important saints of church art accompanied by their date of martyrdom, attributes, and a glossary of common symbols.


Study of Saints

Attwater. A Dictionary of Saints: Being Also an Index to the Revised Editions of Alban Butler's "Lives of the Saints." 1958. BX 4654 .B8 19

------. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 1995. HumRef BX 4655.8 .A8 1995

Bles. How to Distinguish the Saints in Art by Their Costumes, Symbols and Attributes. 1925.
Covers saints and how they are depicted in art. Includes a chronological list of the Bishops of Rome and the Popes up to the end of the sixteenth century, an alphabetized list of emblems and corresponding saints who used them, and an alphabetical list of the means by which the saints were martyred, naming the ones who died. Quarto N 8080 .B5

Bibliotheca Sanctorum. Roma: Istituto Giovanni XXIII nela Pontifica Universita lateranense, 1961-1970. 12 vols.
Encyclopedia of saints, although more theological than iconographical. BX 4655.8 .B5

The Book of Saints : A Dictionary of Servants of God Canonized by the Catholic Church. Comp. by the Benedictine monks of St. Augustine's Abbey. 1989. HumRef BX 4655.2 .B66 1989b

Butler's Lives of the Saints. 1995. 13 vols. Considered one of the standard authoritative references, includes bibliographical info, saints are listed under their feast day, includes index. Butler's original work was published between 1756 and 1759. BX 4654.B8 1995
Concise edition: BX 4654 .B8 1985

Clare. St. Nicholas: His Legends and Iconography. 1985. BR 1720 .N46 C53 1985

Davidson. A Dictionary of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels. 1967. HumRef BL 477 .D3 1967

Drake and Wilfred. Saints and Their Emblems. 1916.
Divided into two main sections: a biographical dictionary of saints with some bibliographical data and a dictionary of emblems that lists the saints associated with them. Has five appendices: (1) patriarchs and prophets with their emblems; (2) sibyls and their emblems; (3) patron saints of arts, trades, and professions; (4) patron saints of various classifications; and (5) saints who were invoked for particular reasons. In all categories, the saint's feast day is provided in parentheses beside the saint's name.
HumRef N 8080.D7 1971b

The Encyclopedia of Catholic Saints. 1966. 12 vols. HumRef BX 4655.2 .E5 1966

Farmer. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints. 1987. HumRef BR 1710 .F34 1987

Holweck. A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints: With a General Introduction on Hagiology. 1924. HumRef BX 4655 .H6 1969

Jameson. The History of Our Lord as Exemplified in Works of Art. 1872. 2 vols.
Excellent explanations in English of Christian themes depicted in the fine arts. N 7830 .J3 1872 and Microfiche: AC 1 .N56 4.1.40

------. Legends of the Madonna As Represented in the Fine Arts. 1864. N 8070 .J32x

------. Legends of the Monastic Orders: As Represented in the Fine Arts. 1867. N 8080 .J3 1867

------. Sacred and Legendary Art. 1870. 2 vols. N 7830 .J2 1870

Kaftal. Iconography of the Saints in Italian Painting from Its Beginnings to the Early XVIth Century. 1952-1985. ND 1432 .I8 K33 1985
Volume I: Iconography of the Saints in Tuscan Painting, 1952.
Volume II: Iconography of the Saints in Central and South Italian Schools of Painting, 1965. Volume III: Iconography of the Saints in the Painting of North-east Italy, 1978.
Volume IV: Iconography of the Saints in the Painting of North-west Italy, 1985.

New Catholic Encyclopedia . 2003. [Electronic Resource, search Library Catalog]

Rochelle. Post-Biblical Saints Art Index : a locator of paintings, sculptures, mosaics, icons, frescoes, manuscript illuminations, sketches, woodcuts, and engravings, created from the 4th century to 1950, with a directory of the institutions holding them.1994. HumRef N 8079.5 .R63 1994

Waters. A Handbook of Christian Symbols and Stories of the Saints as Illustrated in Art . 1886. N 8010 .W38 1886



Bible Dictionaries

Addis and Arnold. A Catholic Dictionary. 1960. BX 841.A3 1916b

The Bible for Students of Literature and Art. 1964. BS 391.2 .H3x 1964

McKenzie. Dictionary of the Bible. 1965. HumRef BS 440.M36 1965a

Hennecke and Schneemelcher. Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Ubersetzung. 1968-1971. 2 vols. BS 2833 .G3 1968


Non-Christian Topics

Bakshi. Iconography of the Buddha Images in Japan: A Comparative Study, Japan-India .1987. N 8193 .J3B35 1987

Benson and Griffin. Maya Iconography. 1988. Quarto F 1435.3 .A7 M27 1988

Bhattacharyya. The Indian Buddhist Iconography: Maiunly Based on the Sadhanamala and Cognate Tantric Texts and Rituals. 1968. N 7301 .B47 1968

Coomaraswamy. Elements of Buddhist Iconography.1972. N 7302.C65 1972

Daneshvari. Medieval Tomb Towers of Iran: An Iconographical Study. 1986. NA 6181 .D36 1986

Geertz. Hopi Indian Altar Iconograhpy. 1987. E 99 .H7 G445 1987

Goldsmith. Ancient Pagan Symbols.1973. BL 600 .G6 1973

Gopintha Ro. Elements fo Hindu Iconography. 1914-16. 4 vols. BL 1205 .G65 1981

Gordon. The Iconography of Tibetan Lamaism. 1959. Quarto NB 1046 .T5 G6 1967

Hellmuth. The Surface of the Underworld: Iconography of the Gods of Early Classic Maya Art in Peten, Guatemala. 1987. 2 vols. F 1435.3 .A7 H441 1987

Hirschfelder. Encyclopedia of Native American Religions. 1992. HumRef E 98 .R3 H73 1992

Leick. A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology. 1991. HumRef BL 1060 .L44 1991

Marle. Iconographie de l'art profane au Moyen-Age et a la Renaissance, et la decoration demeures . 1971. 2 vols.
Comprehensive work on profane, non-narrative subjects in the visual arts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Includes themes from daily life, allegories, and symbols. Quarto N 5970 .M352

Moore. Iconography of Religions: an Introduction. 1977. N 7790 .M65 1977b

van Oort. The Iconography of Chinese Buddhism in Traditional China. 1986. 2 vols. N 8193 .C6059x 1986

Parrinder. A Dictionary of Non-Christian Religions. 1971. HumRef BL 31 .P36

Rosen-Ayalon. The Early Islamic Monuments of al-Haram al-Sharif: An Iconographic Study. 1989. DS 109.8 .H2 R62x 1989

Simmons. Iconography of New Zealand Maori Religion. 1986. N 7406 .S55x 1986

Sorensen. The Iconography of Korean Buddhist Painting. 1989. ND 1432 .K6567 1989

Stutley. An Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography. 1985. HumRef N 8195 .A4578 1984

Williams. Outlines of Chinese Symbolism and Art Motives: An Alphabetical Compendium of Antique Legends and Beliefs as Reflected in the Manners and Customs of the Chinese. 1941. GR 335 .W53 1974b

Zimmer. Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilizations. Ed. by Joseph Campbell. 1946. BL 2003 .Z5 1953



Ann and Imel. Goddesses in World Mythology. 1993. HumRef BL 473.5 .A66 1993

Bell. Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Symbols, Attributes, & Associations. 1982. HumRef BL 715 .B44 1982

------. Women of Classical Mythology: A Biographical Dictionary. 1991. HumRef BL 715 .B445 1991

Bonnerjea. A Dictionary of Superstitions and Mythology. 1927; rep. 1969. BL 303 .B6 1969

Brewer's Dictionary of 20th-Century Phrase and Fable. 1992. HumRef PE 630 .B74 1992

Bulfinch's Mythology: the Age of Fable, the Age of Chivalry, Legends of Charlemagne. 1970. BL 310 .B76 1913

Dowson. A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography, History, and Literature. 1928. HumRef BL 603 .A72 1991

Ellis. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. 1992. HumRef BL 900 .E45 1992

Fox. The Mythology of All Races. 1916. 13 vols. HumRef BL 28 .M8 1916

Frazer. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. 1955. 13 vols. BL 310 .F7

Knappert. The Encyclopaedia of Middle Eastern Mythology and Religion. 1993. HumRef BL 1060 .K63x 1993

Morford. Classical Mythology.1995. BL 722 .M67 1995

Rochelle. Mythological and Classical World Art Index: a Locator of Paintings, Sculptures, Frescoes, Manuscript Illuminations, Sketches, Woodcuts and Engravings Executed 1200 B.C. to A.D. 1900, With a Directory of the Institutions Holding Them . 1991. HumRef N 7760 .R63 1991

Seznec. The Survival of the Pagan Gods: The Mythological Tradition and its Place in Renaissance Humanism and Art. 1953. BR 135 .S483

Waters. A Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art. 1969. HumRef N 7760 .W34

Werner. A Dictionary of Chinese Mythology. 1932. HumRef BL 1801 .W35 1977

Zimmer and Campbell. The Art of Indian Asia: Its Mythology and Transformations. 1983. 2 vols. N 730 .Z49 1983


Greek and Roman

Roscher. Ausfuhrliches Lexikon der griechischen und romischen Mythologie. 1965. 10 vols. Ancient Studies BL 17 .R7 1965

Bell. Place-names in Classical Mythology: Greece. 1989. HumRef DF 16 .B45 1989

Goodenough. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period. 1953. 13 vols. DS 111 .G65 1953

Graves. The Greek Myths. 1988. 2 vols. BL 782 .G68 1988

Grimal. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1996. HumRef BL 715 .G713 1996

Hamilton. Choes and anthesteria: Athenian Iconography and Ritual. 1992. BL 795.A56H36 1992

Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae (LIMC). 1981. 12 vols.
Premier source for the iconography of Classical mythology in art. Articles in French and German, heavily illustrated. Ancient Studies N 7760 .L49 1981

Moon. Ancient Greek Art and Iconography. 1992. N 5633.A53 1983

Morogan. The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera: A Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography. 1988. DF 221.T38M67 1988

Rawson. The Myth of Marsyas in the Roman Visual Arts: An Iconographic Study. 1987. N 7763.M35R38 1987

Reid. The Oxford Guide to Classical Mythology in the Arts, 1300-1990s. 1993. 2 vols. HumRef NX 650 .M9 R45 1993

Rombos. The Iconography of Attic Late Geometric II Pottery. 1988. NK 4647.R65x 1988

Room. NTC's Classical Dictionary: The Origins of the Names of Characters in Classical Mythology. 1990. HumRef BL 727 .R58 1990

Rose. Handbook of Greek Mythology. 1928. BL 781 .R65

Stoneman. Greek Mythology: An Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend. 1991. HumRef BL 782 .S76x 1991

Stapleton. The Illustrated Dictionary of Greek and Roman Mythology. 1986. HumRef BL 715 .S7 1986b

Younger. The Iconography of Late Minoaon and Mycenaean Sealstones and Finger Rings.1988. CD 5369 .Y68x 1988


Emblem Books

Black. A Short Title Catalogue of the Emblem Books and Related Works in the Stirling Maxwell Collection of Glascow University Library (1499-1917). 1988. Z 1021.3 .B57 1988

Campa. Emblemata Hispanica: An Annotated Bibliography of Spanish Emblem Literature. 1990. Z 1021.3.C3



Iconographic index spanning the major periods of art and literary history, focusing on sixteenth and seventeenth century prints. Contains 60,000 entries on microfiche, and was assembled from 20 renowned sources, including Adam von Bartsch's Le Peintre Graveur. The entries represent both printed and pictorial material. The earliest imprint is 1250, and the most recent is 1940. Each entry is arranged alphabetically by keyword. Assigned keywords are based on the most significant aspect of each imprint. Keywords are tied to specific subjects such as: Architecture, History, and Science.

Index Iconologicus also complements the Decimal Index to the Art of the Low Countries/Iconclass system. It is divided into (1) chronological listing of bibliographic sources and (2) black-and-white illustrations, organized by proper names, places, works, concepts, objects, and themes, including secular, mythological and religious.
User guide in Religion/Family History Reference (level 2)


Iconclass Indexes: Dutch Prints. 1994-. HumRef NE667.I27x 1994
Iconclass Indexes: Early German Prints. 1995-. HumRef NE651.L386 1995
Iconclass Indexes: Italian Prints. 1987-. HumRef NE659.I28x
NOTE: The Illustrated Bartsch is also available in digital format through the database ARTStor.

A detailed iconographic classification system organized by Waal and other Dutch art historians, utilized in a growing number of projects, such as Marburger Index, DIAL, Iconclass Indexes, etc. The set consists of 7 vols. of the classification system, 7 vols. of related bibliography, and an alphabetical index of 3 vols. The classification consists of 9 "Divisions"with detailed numbers assigned to each person or term. Within each Division,there are Subdivisions utilizing letters and numbers. The 9 Divisionsare:
(1) Religion and Magic; (2) Nature; (3) Human Being, Man in general; (4) Society, Civilization, Culture; (5) Abstract Ideas and Concepts; (6) History; (7) The Bible, (8) Literature; (9) Classical mythology and ancient history.
ICONCLASS WEBSITE: http://www.iconclass.nl/
Munich: K.G. Saur, 1976-1996. Owned by the Bildarchiv Foto Marburg and Rheinisches Bildarchiv in Cologne, the photographs cover material dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Contains all types of western and non-western art, architecture, sculpture, prints, and decorative arts andcrafts. Exterior and interior views are provided as well as photographs taken between 1850 and 1996 of art objects owned by German museums, churches, and institutions. About 1 million images in 13,000 microfiches. Index in CD-ROM, located in the Family History/Microform Library, level 2.
Photographic collection of Greek and Roman classical art and architecture with additional illustrations for Egypt and the Near East as well as architecture and fine arts of the Middle Ages and the modern era. Photographs are organized by types of monuments and topography. More than 300,000 images.
Microfiche N 5615 .I634 (2,714 microfiches)
Guide: N 5615 .I634x 1991 (Family History/Microform Library, level 2)