Old Testament

I. Reference Books

A. Dictionaries, Encyclopedias and Introductions
B. Indexes and Abstracts

II. Studies

A. Commentaries
B. Handbooks and other Guides
C. Atlases

III. Concordances and Lexical Dictionaries

A. Theological Usages
B. Linguistics Usages

IV. Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocrypha/Pseudepigrapha, Legends

Reference books

Dictionaries, Encyclopedias and Introductions
[For background information and proper names. See also Gospel Doctrine and BYU Old Testament class manuals.]

Achtemeier, Paul J., ed. The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary. (San Francisco: Harper, 1996.) The best and most thorough one-volume dictionary of Biblical scholarship and also the least sectarian in interpretation.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 440 .H235

Cornfield, Gaalyah. Archaeology of the Bible: Book by Book. (New York: Harper & Row, 1976.) Following the order of the Bible, this dictionary has useful charts and illustrations. Index of scriptures.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 621 .C6415

Elwell, Walter A., ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1984.) Topical approach to scriptural study. Thorough.
Rel/Fam Ref BR 95 .E87

Freedman, David Noel, ed. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. (New York: Doubleday, 1992.) The best and most thorough Bible dictionary: six volumes. Signed articles and scholarly bibliographies. Very few illustrations.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 440 .A54

The Illustrated Bible Dictionary. (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale Press, 1980.) Three volumes; color illustrations, maps, charts. Use the index in volume 3.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 440 .I63

Many other Bible dictionaries can be found adjacent to the books above.

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Indexes and Abstracts
[For periodical articles.]

Index to the Periodicals of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
These volumes cover 1898 to the present. Look under Bible or any Biblical name or doctrine.
Rel/Fam Ref BX 8605.103 .B76i

Old Testament Abstracts. The library has 1978 to the present. Use the table of contents in each vol. Scholarly.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 410 .O42

Religion Index One: Periodicals. The library has 1955 to the present. 1975 forward is on the network under Databases & Periodical Indexes: Religion: General. Look up any Old Testament book or subject using keyword.
Rel/Fam Ref BL 48 .X1 A53 and BYU Library home page

Scripture Citation Index. By looking up any scripture you can find what general authorities have said about it in a General Conference.
Rel/Fam Ref BX 8620 .H832s and LDS Collectors Library above

Find locations of periodicals by using the BYU Library Catalog at most computers.

Look under the title of periodical, not the title of the article.

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[Only a few of many are listed below. Viewpoints vary from conservative reformed and fundamentalist to liberal mainstream Protestantism.]


Allen, Leslie C. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.) Conservative.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 1560 .A65

The Anchor Bible. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964-.) 44 volumes. Probably the most exhaustive commentary of all, but not yet complete. Includes Old Testament, New Testament and Apocrypha/Pseudepigrapha. Scholarly and balanced.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 192.2 .B7

Brown, Raymond E., ed. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990.) The best one-volume commentary.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 491.2 .B7

Bruce, F.F., ed. The New International Bible Commentary with the New International Version of the Holy Bible. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.) One of the best one volume commentaries available, mostly because of the great reputation of its editor.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 491.2 .I53

Hertz, J.H. The Pentateuchs and Haftorahs. (London: Soncino Press, 1981.) Contains Hebrew text, English translation, and commentary. Haftorahs are readings from the prophetic books.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 1222 .H47

Keil, C.F. and F. Delitzsch, eds. Commentaries on the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949.) 25 volumes. The standard of Old Testament commentaries. Hebrew usage included. Translated from the German.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 1154 .K414

The New Interpreter's Bible. (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994-.) 12 volumes.
Based on the older Interpreter's Bible, which is also still a good source.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 491.2 .N484

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There are many commentaries you may check out of the library. Use the call numbers above in the general stacks.

Handbooks and other Guides

Encyclopædia Judaica. (New York: Macmillan, 1971.) Excellent source for any subject in Old Testament studies.
Rel/Fam Ref DS 102.8 .E496

The New Jerome Bible Handbook. (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1992.) The best one-volume handbook.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 417 .N49

Tenney, Merrill C., ed. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975.) Profusely illustrated in five volumes.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 440 .Z63

Van der Woude, A.S., ed. The World of the Bible. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.)
Contains six sections, each with bibliographies: Geography, Archaeology, Writing and Languages, Textual History, History of the Ancient Near East, and Biblical Institutions.)
Rel/Fam Ref BS 475.2 .W4713

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Rogerson, John. Atlas of the Bible. (NY: Facts on File, 1985.) The maps, diagrams, and photographs are among the finest. A gazeteer and subject index at the back.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 630 .R6

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Concordances and Lexical Dictionaries

[Theological and Linguistic.]

Theological Usage
[Example: finding the meaning to the word for Zion.]

Strong, James R., ed. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1986.) After looking under Zion, for example, the entry directs you to number 6726 in the Hebrew dictionary portion. From here you may go to the sources below for further illumination.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 425 .S8

Harris, R. Laird, ed. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.) Used with Strong's above, to look up Hebrew cognates, meanings.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 440 .T49

The Englishman's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament. (London: Bagster and Sons, 1963.) An exhaustive OT concordance with Hebrew and English indexes.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 1125 .W5

Botterwick, G. Johannes and Helmer Ringgren, eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974--.) 15 volumes. Discusses in full the meaning of each Hebrew word used in the Old Testament. The best source of OT exegesis. Not yet complete.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 440 .B5713

Other resources for finding alternate meanings of a particular word or phrase:

Brenton, Lancelot C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980.) The Greek text of the LXX alongside an English translation.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 742 .B74

Green, Jay P., Sr. The Interlinear Bible: Hebrew, Greek, English. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982.) Transliteration and translation into English; King James Version. Hebrew and English only in the Old Testament. Greek and English in the New Testament.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 3.5

The Holy Bible in Four Translations. (New York: World-Wide Publications, 1972.) Variant interpretations of a Hebrew word. Versions: KJV, New American Standard, New English Bible, Jerusalem Bible.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 125 .W6

Kohlenberger, John R., III, ed. The NIV Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1985.) The widely-accepted New International Version.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 715

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Linguistic Usage

Alter, Robert and Frank Kermode, eds. The Literary Guide to the Bible. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.) The finest literary study of the Bible, especially of the Old Testament.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 511.2 .L58

The Oxford English Dictionary. (Oxford University Press, 1933, 1961.) Indispensable for find King James English language word definitions and etymologies. Find the etymology closest to the year 1611 for the most accurate King James English usage.
Hum Ref PE 1625 .M7

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Talmud, Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocrypha/Pseudepigrapha, Legends

Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983 and 1985.) 2 volumes. Contains most of the known pseudepigraphic works. Bibliographies, apparati, and commentaries accompany each work. The three best-known books of Enoch are included.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 1830 .A3

Cloward, Robert A., comp. The Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha and The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Selected Bibliography of Text Editions and English Translations. (Provo: FARMS, 1988.) Very comprehensive.
Rel/Fam Ref BS 1691 .X1 C66

Epstein, Rabbi I., ed. The Babylonian Talmud. (London: Soncino Press, 1952.) 18 volumes. Use index in vol. 18 first, then compare the list of Orders and Tractates in the front of the volume to find which volume your citation is found in.
Rel/Fam Ref BM 400 .E57x

Fitzmeyer, Joseph A., ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Major Publications and Tools for Study. (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1977.)
Rel/Fam Ref BM 487 .X1 F5

Ginzberg, Louis, ed. The Legends of the Jews. (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1967.) 7 volumes. Vol. 7 is a comprehensive index. An excellent source for extra-biblical information.
Rel/Fam Ref BM 530 .G53x

Martínez, Florentino García and Donald W. Parry, eds. A Bibliography of the Finds in the Desert of Judah 1970-1995. (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996.)
Rel/Fam Ref BM 487 .X1 G37

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Many other research tools for the Old Testament are found in Religion/Family History Reference.

Please ask for help at the reference desk.